Bioaccumulation Studies Associated with the Kingston Fly Ash Spill, Spring 2009 - Fall 2010 [electronic resource]

 0 Người đánh giá. Xếp hạng trung bình 0

Tác giả:

Ngôn ngữ: eng

Ký hiệu phân loại: 630.973 Agriculture and related technologies

Thông tin xuất bản: Washington, DC : Oak Ridge, Tenn. : United States. Department of Energy Work for Others Program ; Distributed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, U.S. Dept. of Energy, 2012

Mô tả vật lý: Medium: ED : , digital, PDF file.

Bộ sưu tập: Metadata

ID: 268395

In December 2008, an ash dike at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant ruptured, releasing over one billion gallons of coal fly ash into the Emory and Clinch Rivers. Coal fly ash may contain several contaminants of concern, but of these selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) have been highlighted because of their toxicity and tendency to bioaccumulate in aquatic food chains. To assess the potential impact of the spilled fly ash on humans and the environment, a comprehensive biological and environmental monitoring program was established, for which resident aquatic organisms (among other sample media) are collected to determine contaminant exposure and evaluate the risk to humans and wildlife. Studies on bioaccumulation and fish health are major components of the TVA Biological Monitoring Program for the Kingston fly ash project. These studies were initiated in early Spring 2009 for the purposes of: (1) documenting the levels of fly ash-associated metals in various tissues of representative sentinel fish species in the area of the fly ash spill, (2) determining if exposure to fly ash-associated metals causes short, intermediate, or long-term health effects on these sentinel fish species, (3) assessing if there are causal relationships between exposure (to metals) and effects on fish, (4) evaluating, along with information regarding other ecological and physicochemical studies, the nature and route of contaminant transfer though food chains into higher level consumers, (5) providing important information for the Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) for the Kingston fly ash project, and (6) serving as an important technology transfer or model study focused on how to best evaluate the environmental effects of fly ash, not only at the Kingston site, but also at sites on other aquatic systems where coal-fired generating stations are located. This report summarizes the bioaccumulation results from the first two years of study after the fly ash spill, including four seasonal collections: Spring 2009, Fall 2009, Spring 2010, and Fall 2010. Both the Spring and Fall studies have focused on 3-4 sentinel fish species that represent different feeding habits, behaviors, and home ranges. In addition to bioaccumulation studies, the Spring investigations also included evaluation of fish health and reproductive integrity on the same fish used for bioaccumulation. Two associated reports present the fish health (Adams et al 2012) and reproductive studies (Greeley et al 2012) conducted in 2009 and 2010. The fish health study conducted in conjunction with the bioaccumulation and reproductive study is critical for assessing and evaluating possible causal relationships between contaminant exposure (bioaccumulation) and the response of fish to exposure as reflected by the various measurements of fish health. This report emphasizes evaluation of arsenic and selenium bioaccumulation in fish and consists of four related studies (Sections 2-5) including, (1) bioaccumulation in liver and ovaries, (2) bioaccumulation in whole body gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), (3) bioaccumulation in muscle tissue or fillets, and (4) a reconstruction analysis which establishes the relationship between selenium in muscle tissue and that of the whole body of bluegill (Lepomis machrochirus). Metals other than arsenic and selenium are evaluated separately in Section 6. This report focuses on selenium and arsenic for the following reasons: (1) based on baseline studies conducted in early 2009 in the Emory and Clinch River, only two potentially fly-ash related metals, selenium and arsenic, appeared to be elevated above background or reference levels, (2) selenium and arsenic are two of the metals in coal ash that are known to bioaccumulate and cause toxicity in wildlife, and (3) based on bioaccumulation studies of bluegill and carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the Stilling Pond during Spring 2009, which would represent a worst case situation for metal bioaccumulation, selenium and arsenic were the only two metals consistently elevated above background levels in fish. Each of the four selenium and arsenic evaluations presented in this report include an approach section, a results section which addresses primarily spatial and temporal patterns in bioaccumulation, an interpretation and discussion section, and a synthesis section which provides the main summary points of each study. Other metals in fish from near the spill site are evaluated by comparison with reference sites and evaluation of spatial and temporal trends. Statistical approaches to data analysis will be conducted after the third year of bioaccumulation monitoring when there is a larger n size available for analysis, there has been sufficient time for food-chain driven bioaccumulation (2009 data was likely closer to pre-spill exposures), and data correction factors for selenium and mercury (because of poor analytical recoveries for some samples) have been fully codified by the study team.
Tạo bộ sưu tập với mã QR


ĐT: (028) 71010608 | Email:

Copyright @2020 THƯ VIỆN HUTECH